Ancient Indian History Part 2 – Indus Valley Civilization

  • In 1 921, archaeologists found out that it was the ancient city of India.
  • Harappa in Sindhi means ‘Buried City’.
  • This civilization flourished in India about 4700 years ago.

indus valley civilization

The Great Bath:

  • The most important structure found in the citadel was the Great Bath.
  • There were steps on both the sides of the pool
  • There were rooms on all the sides of the pool for changing clothes.
  • Fed by water from a well and the dirty water was emptied by a huge drain.


  • Houses were built in grid system
  • Houses which had two rooms
  • Multi-storeyed houses, public hall, granary and public buildings built out of bricks.
  • No windows in the houses.
  • They had a well and a bathroom.
  • There were dustbins in front of the houses

Town Planning:

  • The northern part of the town was narrow and elevated.
  • The excavators considered that those were constructed on the security basis.
  • The eastern side was broad and lowered

Applied Science

  • The science and technology such as construction
  • Selections of lands
  • Measurement of plots
  • Foundation, selection of quality building materials & Geometrical figures were in use

Drainage system:

  • The drains from the houses were covered.
  • They ran along the sides of the streets which were connected to the street drains.
  • They had manholes at regular intervals for cleaning


  • The public drainage system
  • The Great Bath
  • The public hall
  • The street lights
  • The provisions of dustbins show that the administrative system was well organized.


  • There would have been workers like
  • Document writers,
  • Seal maker
  • Carpenters
  • Doll makers
  • Masons and other artisans
  • Dolls made out of terracotta
  • They used copper and bronze to make weapons
  • Weights were made out of a kind of stone.

Terracotta seals:

  • Hundreds of rectangular seals were discovered here
  • Pictographic writings were written on them
  • The script had not been deciphered yet.
  • Bulls, cart, dove, boats and a figure of a human meditating are seen


  • Terracotta planks discovered here were engraved with letters
  • They were pictographic writing.
  • These writings are related to the ancient Tamil writings.


  • Agriculturists
  • Artisans
  • Traders
  • Traders
  • Potters
  • Blacksmiths

Agriculture was their main occupation, they cultivated wheat and barley, stored the surplus grains in the granary


  • People wore cotton and woollen dresses

  • Men wore a garment similar to the ‘dhoti

  • Shawl as upper garment


To make ornaments they used

  • Gold

  • Silver

  • Ivory

  • Precious stones


  • Experts in making pots out of terracotta

  • The figures of birds, animals, images of male and female,

  • The figures of birds, animals, images of male and female,

  • Pots and bowls were discovered


  • The statue of a dancing girl made out of bronze found in Mohenjo-Daro

  • Statue of a man with beard made out of limestone are examples of the excellent sculptures


  • The articles excavated in Mohenjo-Daro tell us about their religious Practices

  • They worshipped Lord Shiva represented as Pasupath

  • Mother Goddess, Lingam, Trident and trees.

Causes for the decline of the towns:

  • Wooden articles would have got destroyed by fire

  • Rivalry because of the civil war

  • Natural calamities and the change in the course of River Indus would have buried things.

  • The Aryans would have destroyed these towns in order to succeed

  • The heap of bones discovered in Mohenjo-Daro is evidence of the invasion of the foreigners

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