Biosphere Reserves (BRs) are representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes extending over a large area of terrestrial or coastal/marine ecosystems or a combination thereof and representative examples of bio-geographic zones/provinces.
Criteria for designation of BR
- A site that must contain an effectively protected and minimally disturbed core area of value of nature conservation.
- The core area should be typical of a bio-geographical unit and large enough to sustain viable populations representing all trophic levels in the ecosystem.
- The management authority to ensure the involvement/cooperation of local communities to bring the variety of knowledge and experiences to link biodiversity conservation and socio-economic development while managing and containing the conflicts.
- Areas potential for preservation of traditional tribal or rural modes of living for harmonious use of the environment.
List of Important Biosphere Reserves in India
|Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve||Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka||Nilgiri tahr, lion-tailed macaque|
|Nanda Devi National Park & Biosphere Reserve||Uttarakhand|
|Gulf of Mannar||Tamil Nadu||Dugong or sea cow|
|Sundarbans||West Bengal||Royal Bengal tiger|
|Manas||Assam||Golden langur, red panda|
|Panna||Madhya Pradesh||Tiger, chital, chinkara, sambhar and sloth bear|
|Simlipal||Odisha||Gaur, royal Bengal tiger, elephant|
|Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve||Madhya Pradesh||Giant squirrel, flying squirrel|
|AchanakmarAmarkantak Biosphere Reserve||Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh||Four-horned antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis), Indian wild dog (Cuon alpinus), Saras crane (Grus Antigone), Asian white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis), Sacred grove bush frog (Philautus sanctisilvaticus)|
|Great Rann of Kutch||Gujarat||Indian wild ass|
|Cold Desert||Himachal||Pradesh Snow leopard|
|Khangchendzonga||Sikkim||Snow leopard, red panda|
|AgasthyamalI Biosphere Reserve||Kerala, Tamil Nadu||Nilgiri tahr, elephants|
|Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve||Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Saltwater crocodile|