Ecology and Environment Notes Part 5 – Vienna Convention, Stockholm Convention and Rotterdam Convention


  • Vienna Convention
  • Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
  • Rotterdam Convention
  • Basel Convention
  • Convention on Biological Diversity
    • Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety:
    • Nagoya Protocol
      • Aichi Target
  • United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
    • Doha Outcome
    • Warsaw Outcome
  • Bonn Convention
  • Barcelona Convention
  • Ramsar Convention
  • Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter
  • Minamata Convention
  • International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (Marpol)
  • Benzene Convention
  • International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW)

Vienna Convention

  • Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer.
  • Often called a framework convention, because it served as a framework for efforts to protect the globe’s ozone layer.
  • The Vienna Convention was adopted in 1985 and entered into force on 22 September 1988.
  • The objectives of the Convention were for Parties to promote cooperation by means of systematic observations, research and information exchange on the effects of human activities on the ozone layer and to adopt legislative or administrative measures against activities likely to have adverse effects on the ozone layer.
  • The Vienna Convention did not require countries to take concrete actions to control ozone-depleting substances. Instead, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention, the countries of the world agreed on the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer under the Convention to advance that goal.
  • The Parties to the Vienna Convention meet once every three years, back to back with the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, to make decisions designed to administer the Convention.
  • In 2009, the Vienna Convention became the first Convention of any kind to achieve universal ratification.


  • This protocol was designed to reduce the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances to reduce their abundance in the atmosphere, and thereby protect the earth’s fragile ozone Layer.
  • The original Montreal Protocol was agreed on 16 September 1987 and entered into force on 1 January 1989. followed by the first meeting in Helsinki, May 1989.
  • It legally enforces the phase-out of the production and use of ozone-depleting substances – chemicals often used in refrigeration, air-conditioning, foam manufacturing, aerosol production, and fire extinguishing.
  • Protocol stipulates that the production and consumption of compounds that deplete ozone in the stratosphere–chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform–are to be phased out by 2000 (2005 for methyl chloroform).

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

  • A global treaty to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
  • The Convention has a range of control measures to reduce and, where feasible, eliminate the release of POPs, including emissions of unintentionally produced POPs such as dioxins. The Convention also aims to ensure the sound management of stockpiles and wastes that contain POPs.
  • POPs are chemicals that remain intact in the environment for long periods, become widely distributed geographically, accumulate in the fatty tissue of living organisms and are toxic to humans and wildlife.
  • POPs circulate globally and can cause damage wherever they travel.  In implementing the Convention, Governments will take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment.
  • Convention came into force on 17 May 2004.

Rotterdam Convention

  • It is an international treaty designed to facilitate informed decision-making by countries about trade in hazardous chemicals.
  • It establishes a list of covered chemicals and requires parties seeking to export a chemical on that list to first establish that the intended importing country has consented to the import.
  • It also requires that a party seeking to export a chemical that is not listed under the Convention but is subject to a ban or severely restrict numerous factors priory must provide notice to the importing country of the proposed export.
  • Convention entered into force on February 24, 2004.
  • Rotterdam Convention applies to industrial chemicals and pesticides that meet the criteria for listing under the Convention, generally because they have been banned or severely restricted in party countries or are severely hazardous pesticide formulations.
  • Major Objective of Convention are:
  • Promote shared responsibility and cooperative efforts among Parties in the international trade of certain hazardous chemicals to protect human health and the environment from potential harm.
  • Contribute to the environmentally sound use of those hazardous chemicals, by facilitating information exchange about their characteristics, by providing for a national decision-making process on their import and export and by disseminating these decisions to Parties.

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