Ecology and Environment Notes Part 8- National Parks in India

Definition 

National Park is a suitable place for biodiversity conservation. National Park declared by the Central Government such animal or any article, trophy, uncured trophy or meat [derived from such animal or any vehicle, vessel, weapon, trap, or tool used in such hunting ] shall be the property of Central Government.

The national park is an area which is strictly reserved for the betterment of the wildlife & biodiversity, and where activities like developmental, forestry, poaching, hunting and grazing on cultivation are not permitted. In these parks, even private ownership rights are not allowed. Their boundaries are well marked and circumscribed. They are usually small reserves spreading in an area of 100 sq. km. to 500 sq. km. In national parks, the emphasis is on the preservation of a single floral or faunal species.

“National Park” means an area declared, whether under sec.35. or sec.38 or deemed, under sub-section (3) of sec.66. to be declared, as a National Park

Every specified plant or part or derivative thereof, in respect of which any offence against this Act or any rule or order made thereunder has been committed, shall be the property of the State Government, and, where such plant or part or derivative thereof has been collected or acquired from a sanctuary or National Park declared by the Central Government, such plant or part or derivative thereof shall be the property of the Central Government.

List of Important National Parks in India

Name State Notability
Bandipur National Park (1974) Karnataka Chital, grey langurs, Indian giant squirrel, Gaur, leopard, Sambar deer, Indian elephants, honey buzzard, red-headed vulture and other animals.
Bannerghatta National Park (Bannerghatta Biological Park) (1974) Karnataka White Tiger, Royal Bengal Tiger, Bear, other animals

 

 

Betla National Park (1986) Jharkhand Tiger, Sloth Bear, Peacock, Elephant, Sambar deer, mouse deer and other animals.
Bhitarkanika National Park (1988)

 

 

Odisha Mangroves, Saltwater crocodile, white crocodile, Indian python, black ibis, wild pigs, rhesus monkeys, chital and other animals
Buxa Tiger Reserve (1922) West Bengal Tiger
Dachigam National Park (1981) J & K Only area where Kashmir stag is found
Dudhwa National Park (1977) U. P Swamp deer, sambar deer, barking deer, spotted deer, hog deer, tiger, Indian rhinoceros,
Gir Forest National Park (1965) Gujrat Asiatic Lion
Great Himalayan National Park (1984) Himachal Pradesh UNESCO World Heritage Site
Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park (1980) Tamil Nadu Green turtles and Olive Ridley turtles and whales.

 

Indravati National Park (1981) Chhattisgarh Wild Asian Buffalo, Tiger Reserve, Hill Mynas
Jaldapara National Park (2012)

 

 

West Bengal Indian one-horned rhinoceros
Jim Corbett National Park (1936)

 

 

Uttarakhand

 

Tiger
Kanha National Park (1955). M. P Swamp Deer, Tigers

 

Kaziranga National Park (1905) Assam Indian rhinoceros, UNESCO World Heritage Site
Keibul Lamjao National Park (1977) Manipur only floating park in the world
Keoladeo National Park (1981) Rajasthan UNESCO World Heritage Site
Manas National Park (1990)

 

Assam UNESCO World Heritage Site

 

Mandla Plant Fossils National Park (1983) M. P Plant Fossils National Park
Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch (1980) Gujarat 70 species of sponges, Coral 52 species along with pufferfishes, seahorse and stingray
Namdapha National Park (1974) Arunachal Pradesh Snow Leopards, Clouded Leopards, Common Leopards and Tigers
Nanda Devi National Park (1982) Uttarakhand UNESCO World Heritage Site
Neora Valley National Park (1986) West Bengal clouded leopard, red panda and musk deer
Nokrek National Park (1986) Meghalaya UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve
Periyar National Park (1982) Kerala Tigers
Ranthambore National Park (1981) Rajasthan Tigers, Leopards, Striped Hyenas, Sambar deer and Chital.
Sariska Tiger Reserve (1955) Rajasthan Tiger
Simlipal National Park (1980) Odisha Tiger, Leopard, Asian elephant, Sambar, Barking deer, Gaur, Jungle cat, Wild boar, and other animals.
Sultanpur National Park (1989) Haryana Siberian crane, greater flamingo, ruff, black winged stilt, common teal, northern pintail, and yellow wagtail.
Sundarbans National Park (1984) West Bengal UNESCO World Heritage Site
Valley of Flowers National Park (1982) Uttarakhand Flying squirrel, Himalayan black bear, red fox, Himalayan weasel and Himalayan yellow throated marten, and Himalayan goral

 

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