Ecology and Environment Notes Part 9 – Wild Life Sanctuaries


Sanctuary is an area which is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, Geo-morphological, natural or zoological significance. The Sanctuary is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. Certain rights of people living inside the Sanctuary could be permitted. Further, during the settlement of claims, before finally notifying the Sanctuary, the Collector may, in consultation with the Chief Wildlife Warden, allow the continuation of any right of any person in or over any land within the limits of the Sanctuary.

A sanctuary is a protected area which is reserved for the conservation of only animal and human activities like the harvesting of timber, collecting minor forest products and private ownership rights are allowed as long as they do not interfere with the well-being of animals. Boundaries of sanctuaries are not well defined and controlled biotic interference is permitted.

“Sanctuary” means an area declared, whether under Sec. [26(A)5] or sec 38, or deemed, under subsection (3) of Sec.66 to be declared, as a wildlife sanctuary;

India has 515 animal sanctuaries referred to as wildlife sanctuaries category IV protected areas. Among these, the 48 tiger reserves are governed by Project Tiger and are of special significance in the conservation of the tiger.

List of Important Wild Life Sanctuaries in India

Name of the Sanctuary Location Major Species
Gir Wild Life Sanctuary Sasan Gir, Junagadh, Amreli Lion, Leopard, Chausinga, Chital, Hyena, Sambar, Chinkara, Herpetofauna, Crocodiles and birds
Wild Ass Sanctuary Little Rann of Kachchh Wild Ass, Chinkara, Blue bull, Houbara bustard, Wolf, Waterfowls, Herpetofauna
Hingolgadh Sanctuary Hingolgadh, Rajkot Chinkara, Blue bull, Wolf, Hyena, Fox, Birds, Herpetofauna
Marine Sanctuary Gulf of Kachchh, Jamnagar Sponges, Corals, Jellyfish, Seahorse, Octopus, Oyster, Pearl oyster, Starfish, Lobster, Dolphin, Dugong, waterfowls
Simlipal Sactuary Odisha Elephant, Tiger, Leopard, Gaur, Cheetal
Kutch Desert Sanctuary Great Rann of Kachchh Chinkara, Hyena, Fox, Flamingo, Pelicans & other waterfowls, Herpetofauna
Rampara Sanctuary Rampara, Rajkot Blue bull, Chinkara, Wolf, Fox, Jackal, Birds, Herpetofauna
Ghana Bird Sanctuary Rajasthan Water Bird, Black-buck, Cheetal, Sambar
Panchmarhi Madhya Pradesh Tiger, Panther, Sambhar, Nilgai, Basking, Deer
Dandeli Sanctuary Karnataka Tiger, Panther, Elephant, Cheetal, Sanbhar, Wild Boar
Kutch Bustard Sanctuary Near Naliya, Kachchh Great Indian Bustard, Lesser Florican, Houbara bustard, Chinkara, Blue bull, Herpetofauna

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