Neighbouring countries of India – Indian Geography Notes Part 2


  • There are seven countries that share land boundaries with India
  • Across the sea to the south, lie our island neighbours— Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
  • Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Palk Strait.

India shares its land boundaries with

  • Pakistan
  • Afghanistan
  • China (Tibet)
  • Nepal
  • Bhutan
  • Myanmar
  • Bangladesh

 Two island countries

  • Sri Lanka
  • Maldives


  • Most volcanoes and earthquakes in the world are located at plate margins, but some do occur within the plates.
  • The oldest landmass, (the Peninsula part of India), was a part of the Gondwana land.
  • The Gondwanaland includedIndia, Australia, South Africa and South America as one single land mass.


  • The conventional currents split the crust into a number of pieces.
  • This leads to the drifting of the Indo-Australian plate after being separated from the Gondwana land, towards the north.
  • The northward drift resulted in the collision of the plate with the much larger Eurasian Plate
  • Due to this collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the geosynclines known as the Tethys were folded to form the mountain system of western Asia and Himalaya.

What is Gondwanaland?

  • It is the southern part of the ancient supercontinent Pangea with Angara Land in the northern part.
  • The Himalayan uplift out of the Tethys Sea and subsidence of the northern flank of the peninsular plateau resulted in the formation of a large basin.
  • In due course of time, this depression gradually got filled with deposition of sediments by the rivers flowing from the mountains in the north and the peninsular plateau in the south.
  • A flat land of extensive alluvial deposits led to the formation of the northern plains of India.
  • Geologically, the Peninsular Plateau constitutes one of the ancient landmasses on the earth’s surface.

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