(iv) The Arunachal Himalayas
- These extend from the east of the Bhutan Himalayas up to the Diphu pass in the east.
- The general direction of the mountain range is from southwest to northeast.
- Some of the important mountain peaks of the region are Kangtu and Namcha Barwa.
- These ranges are dissected by fast-flowing rivers from the north to the south, forming deep gorges.
- Brahmaputra flows through a deep gorge after crossing Namcha Barwa.
- Some of the important rivers are
- The Kameng
- The Dihang
- The Dibang
- The Lohit.
- An important aspect of the Arunachal Himalayas is the numerous ethnic tribal community inhabiting in these areas.
- Some of the prominent ones from west to east are
- The Monpa
- The Nagas
- Most of these communities practice Jhumming.
(v) The Eastern Hills and Mountains
- These are part of the Himalayan mountain system having their general alignment from the north to the south direction
- They are known by different local names
- In the north, they are known as Pataki Bum, Naga Hills,
- In the south as Mizo or Lushai hills.
- Most of these ranges are separated from each other by numerous small rivers.
- The Barak is an important river in Manipur and Mizoram.
- The physiography of Manipur is unique by the presence of a large lake known as ‘Loktak’ lake at the center, surrounded by mountains from all sides.
- Mizoram which is also known as the ‘Molassis basin’ which is made up of soft unconsolidated deposits.
- Most of the rivers in Nagaland from the tributary of the Brahmaputra.
- While two rivers of Mizoram and Manipur are the tributaries of the Barak River, which in turn is the tributary of Meghna;
Some Highest Peaks of the Himalayas
Peak Country Height in meters
Mt. Everest Nepal 8848
Kanchenjunga India 8598
Makalu Nepal 848
Dhaulagiri Nepal 8172
Nanga Parbat India 8126
Annapurna Nepal 8078
Nanda Devi India 7817
Kamet India 7756
Namcha Barwa India 775
Gurla Mandhata Nepal 7728
THE HIMALAYAS AND OTHER PENINSULAR MOUNTAINS
- The Himalayas along with other peninsular mountains are young, weak and flexible in their geological structure
- They are still subjected to the interplay of exogenic and endogenic forces,
- Resulting in the development of faults, folds and thrust plains.
- These mountains are tectonic in origin, dissected by fast-flowing rivers which are in their youthful stage.
- Various landforms like (are indicative of these stages)
- V-shaped valleys
The Peninsular Plateau
- Rising from the height of 150 m above the river plains up to an elevation of 600-900 m is the irregular triangle known as the peninsular plateau.
- Delhi ridge in the northwest, (extension of Aravali’s), the Rajmahal hills in the east, Gir range in the west and the Cardamom hills in the south constitute the outer extent
- An extension of this is also seen in the northeast, in the form of Shillong and Karbi-Anglong plateau
- This is one of the oldest and the most stable landmass of India.
- The general elevation of the plateau is from the west to the east
- This is also proved by the pattern of the flow of rivers.
- Some of the important physiographic features of this region are tors, block mountains rift valleys, spurs, bare rocky structures, series of hummocky hills and wall-like quartzite dykes
On the basis of the prominent relief features, the peninsular plateau can be divided into three broad groups:
- The Deccan Plateau
- The Central Highlands
- The North-eastern Plateau
The Deccan Plateau
- This is bordered by the Western Ghats in the west.
- The Eastern Ghats in the east and the Satpura.
- Maikal range and Mahadeo hills in the north.
- The Western Ghats are locally known by different names such as Sahyadri in Maharashtra, Nilgiri hills in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and Anaimalai hills and Cardamom hills in Kerala.
- The Western Ghats are comparatively higher in elevation and more continuous than the Eastern Ghats.
- Their average elevation is about 1,500 m with the height increasing from north to south.
- ‘Anaimudi’ (2,695 m), the highest peak of the Peninsular plateau is located on the Anaimalai hills of the Western Ghats.
- Most of the Peninsular rivers have their origin in the Western Ghats.
- Eastern Ghatscomprising the discontinuous and low hills are highly eroded by the rivers such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, and the Kaveri.
- Some of the important ranges include the Javadi hills, the Palconda range, the Nallamala hills, the Mahendragiri hills
- The Eastern and the Western Ghats meet each other at the Nilgiri hills.
The Central Highlands
- They are bounded to the west by the Aravali range.
- The Satpura range is formed by a series of scarped plateaus on the south.
- Generally at an elevation varying between 600-900 m above the mean sea level.
- It is a classic example of the relict mountains which are highly denuded and form discontinuous ranges.
- The extension of the peninsular plateau can be seen as far as Jaisalmer in the West.
- The general elevation of the Central Highlands ranges between 700-1,000 m above the mean sea level.
- It slopes towards the north and north-eastern directions.
- Most of the tributaries of the river Yamuna have their origin in the Vindhyan and Kaimur ranges.
- Banas is the only significant tributary of the river Chambal that originates from the Aravalli in the west.