Arab and Turkish invasion
- Prophet Muhammad was the founder of Islam(570-632 A.D)
- Islam grew up in the deserts of Arabia.
- Its first converts were the Arabs.
- Arab conquest of Sind and Multan 712 A.D.
- Commercial contacts prevailed between India and Arabia for a long time.
- The Arabs were attracted by the rich ports of Sind
- They wanted to extend their political and religious control over it.
- They were angry with the ruler of Sind who failed to check the pirates who plundered them
- Sent by Al-Hajjajj the Governor of Iraq
- With the permission of Caliph Walid to conquer Sind
- He marched against Dahir the ruler of Sind
- Defeated him in the Battle of Rewar and captured Sind
- He also captured Multan.
- He got so much of wealth from Multan that he called Multan – ‘The City of Gold’.
- Muhammad-bin-Qasim divided Sind and Multan into the number of Iqtas or districts
- Arab military officers were appointed as heads of the Iqtas.
- Local Hindu officers were allowed to administer the sub¬ divisions of the districts.
- The Arabs imposed Jizya on non- Muslims.
- Muhammad-bin-Qasim had an army of 25,000 troops including 6000 Syrian horses, 6000 Camels, 3000 Bactrian Camels
- An artillery force of 2000 men with five catapults and advanced guards.
End of Muhammad-bin-Qasim
- Caliph Sulaiman, succeeded Caliph Walid after his death.
- He was an arch enemy of Al-Hajjaj, the Governor of Iraq.
- He dismissed Muharrimad-bin Qasim as he was the son-in-law of Al-Hajjaj.
- He sent him as a prisoner to Mesopotamia and tortured him to death.
- Sind and Multan remained as part of the Caliph’s empire for more than 150 years.
Effects of Arab Conquest
- The conquest of Sind sowed the seeds for the coming of Islam into India.
- The Arabs learnt the art of administration, astronomy, music, painting, medicine and architecture from our land.
- Indian Philosophy, numerals and astronomy were taken to Europe by the Arabs.
- The Expansion of Turks into India
- The Turks got the upper hand over the Caliphs of Baghdad in the 8th and 9th centuries
- They completed the work begun by the Arabs and extended their dominion beyond Sind and Multan into India.
Heroic Defence of Women
- The wife of Dahir and the other women of Sind put up a heroic defence within the Fort of Rewar.
- When their attempt failed they performed Jauhar to save their chastity and escape from the hands of the invaders.
A Sanskrit work of Brahma Gupta was translated into Arabic. Arabic works mention the names of Indian scientists like Bhala, Manaka and Sindbad. Dhana was appointed as a chief Medical officer in a hospital at Baghdad
Manaka, a physician cured a serious disease of Caliph Harun-al-Rashid.
Mahmud of Ghazni
- He invaded India in 1000 A.D
- He was the first Turkish invader
- Mahmud defeated Jaipala,
- The ruler of the Hindu Shahi dynasty
- Fateh Daud of Multan and Anandpala of Nagarkot
- He also crushed the Chandelas. The rulers of Mathura, Kanauj and Gwalior.
- Returned to Ghazni with enormous wealth
- Mahmud’s important expedition in Hindustan was against the Somnath temple in 1025 A.D.
- This was situated on the coast of Kathiawar
- As the ruler of Kathiawar, Raja Bhima Dev, and his followers fled from the place,
Estimate of Mahmud of Ghazni
- Mahmud of Ghazni was one of the greatest Muslim rulers of Asia.
- He was a great patron of art and letters and he patronised scholars like Firdausi and Alberuni
End of Ghazni’s rule in India
By 1186 A.D. the power of the House of Ghazni declined and that of Ghori rose up.
Muhammad of Ghori
- Muhammad was the third important Muslim invader of Hindustan.
- He became the ruler of Ghori
- As an ambitious and enterprising ruler
- Started his attacks on India in 1176 A.D
First Battle of Tarain (1191A.D.)
- In 1189 A.D. Muhammad of Ghori captured the fortress of Bhatinda and advanced into the kingdom of Prithviraj Chauhan
- Prithviraj marched against him with a large force and defeated Muhammad of Ghori in the Battle of Tarain in 1191 A.D
- Prithviraj also recovered Bhatinda, which was earlier occupied by Mahmud of Ghazni
Second Battle of Tarain (11 92 A.D.)
- He gave a crushing defeat to the combined forces of the Rajput rulers under Prithviraj at Tarain.
- Prithviraj was imprisoned and later put to death
- The Second Battle of Tarain marked the beginning of the Turkish rule in the heart of Hindustan for the first time in Indian history
- Muhammad of Ghori appointed Qutb-ud-din Aibak as his commander.
- Between 1193 and 1198 A.D. there were many Rajput uprisings
- Qutb-ud-din Aibak put them down and brought many of their territories under his control
- Delhi was made the capital of Muhammad of Ghori’s territory in India.
Battle of Chandwar (1194 A.D.)
- Muhammad of Ghori marched against Jaichandra, the greatest Rajput ruler of Kanauj
- Jaichand was struck in the eye by an arrow and he was killed by Muhammad of Ghori
Conquest of Bengal and Bihar
- Muhammad-bin-Baktiyar Khilji, one of the commanders of Muhammad of Ghori
- Destroyed Vikramasila and Nalanda Universities in 1202-1203A.D
Death of Muhammad of Ghori
- Muhammad of Ghori went back to Ghazrii in order to check his Central Asian enemies.
- While he was engaged in evening prayer, he was assassinated on 25th March 1206A.D. by some Shia rebels and Khokhars
- Muhammad of Ghori was considered to be the real founder of the Turkish Empire in India because of his various conquests and annexations of the Rajput territory in North India